Long-term Outcomes of Bevacizumab and Chemoradiation for Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA network open Lee, N. Y., Harris, J., Kim, J., Garden, A., Mechalakos, J., Pfister, D. G., Chan, A. T., Hu, K., Colevas, A. D., Frank, S., Shenouda, G., Bar-Ad, V., Waldron, J. N., Harari, P. M., Raben, A., Torres-Saavedra, P., Le, Q. 2023; 6 (6): e2316094


Importance: The long-term outcomes associated with adding bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, to standard chemoradiation have continued to be favorable for a group of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Objective: To assess long-term toxic effects and clinical outcomes associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy (RT), and bevacizumab for NPC.Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-arm phase II nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted by the National Cancer Trials Network group and NRG Oncology (formerly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group), with accrual from December 13, 2006, to February 5, 2009, and data analysis from June 26 to July 1, 2019. The study was conducted at 19 cancer centers with a median (IQR) follow-up of 9.0 (7.7-9.3) years. Included patients were adults (aged =18 years) with NPC that was World Health Organization (WHO) histologic grade I to IIb or III, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIB or greater, and with or without lymph node involvement.Interventions: Patients received 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) concurrently with standard cisplatin (100 mg/m2) and RT (69.96 Gy) followed by 3 cycles of adjuvant bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) given concurrently with cisplatin (80 mg/m2) and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2/d).Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was grade 4 hemorrhage or grade 5 adverse events in the first year. Secondary end points were locoregional progression-free (LRPF) interval, distant metastasis-free (DMF) interval, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and other adverse events. Long-term toxic effects and clinical outcomes were reported due to the limited follow-up in the initial report for this trial and the importance of long-term outcomes when combining bevacizumab with chemoradiation.Results: Among 46 patients with NPC who were enrolled, 44 patients were analyzed (29 males [65.9%]; 23 Asian [52.3%], 2 Black [4.5%], and 16 White [36.4%]; 38 not Hispanic [86.4%]; median [IQR] age, 48.5 [39.0-56.0] years). There were 33 patients with a Zubrod performance status of 0, indicating that they were fully functional and asymptomatic (75.0%); 32 patients with a WHO histologic grade of IIb or III (72.7%); and 39 patients with stage III or IVB disease (88.6%). Among analyzed patients, 42 individuals received radiation therapy of 69.96 Gy or greater (95.5%; dose range, 65.72-70.00 Gy); 30 patients received 3 cycles of cisplatin (68.2%) with RT, and 31 patients received 3 cycles of bevacizumab with RT (70.5%); this was followed by 3 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin in 21 patients (47.7%), fluorouracil in 24 patients (54.5%), and bevacizumab in 23 patients (52.3%). No grade 4 hemorrhage or grade 5 AEs were reported in the first year or thereafter. Late grade 3 AEs occurred in 16 patients (36.4%), including 7 patients with dysphagia (15.9%), 6 patients with hearing impairment (13.6%), and 2 patients with dry mouth (4.5%). The 1- and 5-year rates of feeding tube use were 5 of 41 patients (12.2%) and 0 of 27 patients, respectively. There were 19 patients (43.2%) who progressed or died without disease progression (6 patients with locoregional progression [13.6%], 8 patients with distant progression [18.2%], and 5 patients who died without progression [11.4%]). The 5- and 7-year rates were 79.5% (95% CI, 67.6%-91.5%) and 69.7% (95% CI, 55.9%-83.5%) for OS, 61.2% (95% CI, 46.8%-75.6%) and 56.3% (95% CI, 41.5%-71.1%) for PFS, 74.9% (95% CI, 61.4%-86.6%) and 72.3% (95% CI, 58.4%-84.7%) for LRPF interval, and 79.5% (95% CI,66.4%-90.0%) for both times for DMF interval. Among 13 patients who died, death was due to disease in 8 patients (61.5%).Conclusions and Relevance: In this nonrandomized controlled trial, no grade 4 hemorrhage or grade 5 AEs were reported in the first year or thereafter among patients with NPC receiving bevacizumab combined with chemoradiation. The rate of distant metastasis was low although 89% of patients had stage III to IVB disease, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00408694.

View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.16094

View details for PubMedID 37266942