The International Pediatric Transplant Association convened an expert consensus conference to assess current evidence and develop recommendations for various aspects of care relating to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after solid organ transplantation in children. In this report from the Viral Load and Biomarker Monitoring Working Group, we reviewed the existing literature regarding the role of Epstein-Barr viral load and other biomarkers in peripheral blood for predicting the development of PTLD, for PTLD diagnosis, and for monitoring of response to treatment. Key recommendations from the group highlighted the strong recommendation for use of the term EBV DNAemia instead of "viremia" to describe EBV DNA levels in peripheral blood as well as concerns with comparison of EBV DNAemia measurement results performed at different institutions even when tests are calibrated using the WHO international standard. The working group concluded that either whole blood or plasma could be used as matrices for EBV DNA measurement; optimal specimen type may be clinical context dependent. Whole blood testing has some advantages for surveillance to inform pre-emptive interventions while plasma testing may be preferred in the setting of clinical symptoms and treatment monitoring. However, EBV DNAemia testing alone was not recommended for PTLD diagnosis. Quantitative EBV DNAemia surveillance to identify patients at risk for PTLD and to inform pre-emptive interventions in patients who are EBV seronegative pre-transplant was recommended. In contrast, with the exception of intestinal transplant recipients or those with recent primary EBV infection prior to SOT, surveillance was not recommended in pediatric SOT recipients EBV seropositive pre-transplant. Implications of viral load kinetic parameters including peak load and viral set point on pre-emptive PTLD prevention monitoring algorithms were discussed. Use of additional markers, including measurements of EBV specific cell mediated immunity was discussed but not recommended though the importance of obtaining additional data from prospective multicenter studies was highlighted as a key research priority.
View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14471
View details for PubMedID 37294621