Groundwater constituents and the incidence of kidney cancer. Cancer Soerensen, S. J., Montez-Rath, M. E., Cheng, I., Gomez, S. L., Oh, D. L., Jackson, C., Li, J., Rehkopf, D., Chertow, G. M., Langston, M. E., Ganesan, C., Pao, A. C., Chung, B. I., Leppert, J. T. 2023


Kidney cancer incidence demonstrates significant geographic variation suggesting a role for environmental risk factors. This study sought to evaluate associations between groundwater exposures and kidney cancer incidence.The authors identified constituents from 18,506 public groundwater wells in all 58 California counties measured in 1996-2010, and obtained county-level kidney cancer incidence data from the California Cancer Registry for 2003-2017. The authors developed a water-wide association study (WWAS) platform using XWAS methodology. Three cohorts were created with 5 years of groundwater measurements and 5-year kidney cancer incidence data. The authors fit Poisson regression models in each cohort to estimate the association between county-level average constituent concentrations and kidney cancer, adjusting for known risk factors: sex, obesity, smoking prevalence, and socioeconomic status at the county level.Thirteen groundwater constituents met stringent WWAS criteria (a false discovery rate <0.10 in the first cohort, followed by p values <.05 in subsequent cohorts) and were associated with kidney cancer incidence. The seven constituents directly related to kidney cancer incidence (and corresponding standardized incidence ratios) were chlordane (1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.10), dieldrin (1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), 1,2-dichloropropane (1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05), 2,4,5-TP (1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), glyphosate (1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), endothall (1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and carbaryl (1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03). Among the six constituents inversely related to kidney cancer incidence, the standardized incidence ratio furthest from the null was for bromide (0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99).This study identified several groundwater constituents associated with kidney cancer. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of kidney cancer should consider groundwater constituents as environmental exposures that may be associated with the incidence of kidney cancer.

View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.34898

View details for PubMedID 37287332