Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, but the mechanism of this inhibitory effect has not been investigated. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of PMMA particles involve impairment of osteoprogenitor viability and direct inhibition of transcription factors that regulate osteogenesis. We challenged MC3T3-E1 osteoprogenitors with PMMA particles and examined the effects of these materials on osteoprogenitor viability and expression of transcription factors Runx2, osterix, Dlx5, and Msx2. MC3T3-E1 cells treated with PMMA particles over a 72-h period showed a significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation as indicated by a dose- and time-dependent increase in supernatant levels of lactate dehydrogenase, an intracellular enzyme released from dead cells, a dose-dependent decrease in cell number and BrdU uptake, and the presence of large numbers of positively labeled Annexin V-stained cells. The absence of apoptotic cells on TUNEL assay indicated that cell death occurred by necrosis, not apoptosis. MC3T3-E1 cells challenged with PMMA particles during the first 6 days of differentiation in osteogenic medium showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the RNA expression of Runx2, osterix, and Dlx5 on all days of measurement, while the RNA expression of Msx2, an antagonist of Dlx5-induced osteogenesis, remained relatively unaffected. These results indicate that PMMA particles impair osteoprogenitor viability and inhibit the expression of transcription factors that promote osteoprogenitor differentiation.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.21035
View details for PubMedID 20014320