Network effects of Stanford Neuromodulation Therapy (SNT) in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. Translational psychiatry Batail, J., Xiao, X., Azeez, A., Tischler, C., Kratter, I. H., Bishop, J. H., Saggar, M., Williams, N. R. 2023; 13 (1): 240


Here, we investigated the brain functional connectivity (FC) changes following a novel accelerated theta burst stimulation protocol known as Stanford Neuromodulation Therapy (SNT) which demonstrated significant antidepressant efficacy in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In a sample of 24 patients (12 active and 12 sham), active stimulation was associated with significant pre- and post-treatment modulation of three FC pairs, involving the default mode network (DMN), amygdala, salience network (SN) and striatum. The most robust finding was the SNT effect on amygdala-DMN FC (group*time interaction F(1,22)=14.89, p<0.001). This FC change correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms (rho (Spearman) = -0.45, df=22, p=0.026). The post-treatment FC pattern showed a change in the direction of the healthy control group and was sustained at the one-month follow-up. These results are consistent with amygdala-DMN connectivity dysfunction as an underlying mechanism of TRD and bring us closer to the goal of developing imaging biomarkers for TMS treatment optimization.Trial registration: NCT03068715.

View details for DOI 10.1038/s41398-023-02537-9

View details for PubMedID 37400432