The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice.Lung cancer screening has been demonstrated to reduce lung cancer mortality, but its benefits must be weighed against the potential harms of unnecessary procedures, false-positive radiological findings, and overdiagnosis. Individuals at highest risk of lung cancer are more likely to maximize benefits while minimizing harm from screening. Although current lung cancer screening guidelines recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) only consider age and smoking history for screening eligibility, National Comprehensive Cancer Network and other society guidelines recommend screening on the basis of individualized risk assessment including family history, environmental exposures, and presence of chronic lung disease. Risk prediction models have been developed to integrate various risk factors into an individualized risk prediction score. Previous evidence showed that risk prediction model-based screening eligibility could improve sensitivity for detecting lung cancer cases without reducing specificity. Furthermore, recent advances in lung cancer biomarkers have enhanced the performance of risk prediction in identifying lung cancer cases relative to the USPSTF criteria. These risk prediction models can be used to guide shared decision-making discussions before proceeding with lung cancer screening. This study aims to provide a concise overview of these prediction models and the emerging role of biomarker testing in risk prediction to facilitate conversations with patients. The goal was to assist clinicians in assessing individual patient risk, leading to more informed decision making.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.23.01060
View details for PubMedID 37540816