Validation of Inertial Measurement Units for Analyzing Golf Swing Rotational Biomechanics. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Kim, S. E., Burket Koltsov, J. C., Richards, A. W., Zhou, J., Schadl, K., Ladd, A. L., Rose, J. 2023; 23 (20)


Training devices to enhance golf swing technique are increasingly in demand. Golf swing biomechanics are typically assessed in a laboratory setting and not readily accessible. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) offer improved access as they are wearable, cost-effective, and user-friendly. This study investigates the accuracy of IMU-based golf swing kinematics of upper torso and pelvic rotation compared to lab-based 3D motion capture. Thirty-six male and female professional and amateur golfers participated in the study, nine in each sub-group. Golf swing rotational kinematics, including upper torso and pelvic rotation, pelvic rotational velocity, S-factor (shoulder obliquity), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), and X-factor were compared. Strong positive correlations between IMU and 3D motion capture were found for all parameters; Intraclass Correlations ranged from 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation; Pearson coefficients ranged from 0.92 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation (p < 0.001 for all). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated good agreement between the two methods; absolute mean differences ranged from 0.61 to 1.67 degrees. Results suggest that IMUs provide a practical and viable alternative for golf swing analysis, offering golfers accessible and wearable biomechanical feedback to enhance performance. Furthermore, integrating IMUs into golf coaching can advance swing analysis and personalized training protocols. In conclusion, IMUs show significant promise as cost-effective and practical devices for golf swing analysis, benefiting golfers across all skill levels and providing benchmarks for training.

View details for DOI 10.3390/s23208433

View details for PubMedID 37896527

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10611231