Macrophages constitute a major part of the cell response to wear particles produced at articulating and nonarticulating interfaces of joint replacements. This foreign body reaction can result in periprosthetic osteolysis and implant loosening. We demonstrate that ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles induce systemic trafficking of macrophages by noninvasive in vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. The distal femora of nude mice were injected with 60 mg/mL UHMWPE suspension or saline alone. Reporter RAW264.7 macrophages that stably expressed the bioluminescent reporter gene and the fluorescence reporter gene were injected intravenously. Bioluminescence imaging was performed using an in vivo imaging system immediately after macrophage injection and at 2-day intervals. Compared with the nonoperated contralateral femora, at day 4, 6, and 8, the bioluminescent signal of femora containing UHMWPE suspension increased 1.30 +/- 0.09-, 2.36 +/- 0.92-, and 10.32 +/- 7.61-fold, respectively. The values at same time points for saline-injected control group were 1.08 +/- 0.07-, 1.14 +/- 0.27-, and 1.14 +/- 0.35-fold, respectively. The relative bioluminescence of the UHMWPE group was higher at all postinjection days and significantly greater than the saline group at day 8 (p < 0.05). Histological analysis confirmed the presence of reporter macrophages within the medullary canal of mice with implanted UHMWPE particles. The presence of UHMWPE particles induced enhanced bone remodeling activity. Clinically relevant UHMWPE particles stimulated the systemic recruitment of macrophages during an early time course using the murine femoral implant model. Interference with systemic macrophage trafficking may potentially mitigate UHMWPE particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.32744
View details for PubMedID 20213815