The aphorism that reconstruction of the biliary anastomosis is the "Achilles heel" of liver transplantation remains valid as biliary complications following liver transplantation remain a major source of morbidity with an incidence of 5-32%. Biliary complications include biliary strictures, biliary leaks, and stones. Biliary strictures can be divided into anastomotic and non-anastomotic. The management of biliary complications previously relied on surgical intervention. However, advances in endoscopic and radiological interventions have resulted in less-invasive options. The management of biliary complications post-liver transplantation requires a multidisciplinary approach and continues to evolve. Biliary complications also reflect the continued expansion of the donor pool with extended, live, and non-heart beating donors.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-010-1217-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000278578800008
View details for PubMedID 20411422