Christina Kong

Pathologist, Cytopathologist, Surgical pathologist

Associate Professor of Pathology at the Stanford University Medical Center

Heart Transplant Program

  • 300 Pasteur Drive
  • Stanford, CA 94305
  • Phone: 650-723-5468
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Professional Education

Board Certification: Pathology, American Board of Pathology (2014)

Internship: Univ of California San Francisco (1993) CA

Residency: UCSF Medical Center (1999) CA

Fellowship: UCSF Medical Center (1998) CA

Residency: UCSF Medical Center (1996) CA

Board Certification: Anatomic/Clinical Pathology, American Board of Pathology (1999)

Board Certification: Cytopathology, American Board of Pathology (2000)

Fellowship: Stanford University School of Medicine (1997) CA

Medical Education: UCSF School of Medicine (1992) CA

MD, UC San Francisco (1992)

Administrative Appointments

Director, Cytopathology Laboratory, 2006

Director, Cytopathology Fellowship, 2003

Acting Director, Cytopathology Laboratory, 2004

Associate Director, Cytopathology Laboratory, 2002

Long-Term Outcomes of Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy for Minor Salivary Gland Carcinomas
Zeidan, Y. H., Shultz, D. B., Murphy, J. D., Chan, C., Kaplan, M. J., & Le, Q.-T. (2013). Long-Term Outcomes of Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy for Minor Salivary Gland Carcinomas. LARYNGOSCOPE, 123(11), 2675-2680.

A novel aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 activator (Alda-89) protects submandibular gland function from irradiation without accelerating tumor growth.
Xiao, N., Cao, H., Chen, C.-H., Kong, C. S., Ali, R., & Le, Q.-T. (2013). A novel aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 activator (Alda-89) protects submandibular gland function from irradiation without accelerating tumor growth. Clinical cancer research , 19(16), 4455-4464.

p16 Is Superior to ProEx C in Identifying High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) of the Anal Canal
Bala, R., Pinsky, B. A., Beck, A. H., Kong, C. S., Welton, M. L., & Longacre, T. A. (2013). p16 Is Superior to ProEx C in Identifying High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL) of the Anal Canal. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 37(5), 659-668.

Laboratory-Developed L1 Sequencing and Type-Specific, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection and Typing of Human Papillomaviruses in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues
Mills, A., Balasubramaniam, R., Longacre, T. A., Kong, C. S., & Pinsky, B. A. (2013). Laboratory-Developed L1 Sequencing and Type-Specific, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection and Typing of Human Papillomaviruses in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues. ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE, 137(1), 50-54.

Loss of the p53/p63 target PERP is an early event in oral carcinogenesis and correlates with higher rate of local relapse
Kong, C. S., Cao, H., Kwok, S., Nguyen, C. M., Jordan, R. C., & Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. (2013). Loss of the p53/p63 target PERP is an early event in oral carcinogenesis and correlates with higher rate of local relapse. ORAL SURGERY ORAL MEDICINE ORAL PATHOLOGY ORAL RADIOLOGY, 115(1), 95-103.

Loss of the p53/p63 target PERP is an early event in oral carcinogenesis and correlates with higher rate of local relapse.
Kong, C. S., Cao, H., Kwok, S., Nguyen, C. M., Jordan, R. C., & Le, Q.-T. (2013). Loss of the p53/p63 target PERP is an early event in oral carcinogenesis and correlates with higher rate of local relapse. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology, 115(1), 95-103.

CD44+cells have cancer stem cell-like properties in nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Janisiewicz, A. M., Shin, J. H., Murillo-Sauca, O., Kwok, S., Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., & Sunwoo, J. B. (2012). CD44+cells have cancer stem cell-like properties in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY, 2(6), 465-470.

The diagnostic value of nipple discharge cytology: Breast imaging complements predictive value of nipple discharge cytology
Kalu, O. N., Chow, C., Wheeler, A., Kong, C., & Wapnir, I. (2012). The diagnostic value of nipple discharge cytology: Breast imaging complements predictive value of nipple discharge cytology. JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, 106(4), 381-385.

Are Women With Endocervical Adenocarcinoma at Risk for Lynch Syndrome? Evaluation of 101 Cases Including Unusual Subtypes and Lower Uterine Segment Tumors
Mills, A. M., Liou, S., Kong, C. S., & Longacre, T. A. (2012). Are Women With Endocervical Adenocarcinoma at Risk for Lynch Syndrome? Evaluation of 101 Cases Including Unusual Subtypes and Lower Uterine Segment Tumors. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY, 31(5), 463-469.

Evaluation of ProExC as a Prognostic Marker in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Mills, A. M., Beck, A. H., Pourmand, N., Quynh Thu Le, Q. T., & Kong, C. S. (2012). Evaluation of ProExC as a Prognostic Marker in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 36(8), 1158-1164.

Validation that Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer
Tang, C., Murphy, J. D., Khong, B., La, T. H., Kong, C., & Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. (2012). Validation that Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 83(5), 1514-1520.

Prognostic and Predictive Significance of Plasma HGF and IL-8 in a Phase III Trial of Chemoradiation with or without Tirapazamine in Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer
Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T., Fisher, R., Oliner, K. S., Young, R. J., Cao, H., & Rischin, D. (2012). Prognostic and Predictive Significance of Plasma HGF and IL-8 in a Phase III Trial of Chemoradiation with or without Tirapazamine in Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 18(6), 1798-1807.

Quantitation of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Plasma of Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Patients
Cao, H., Banh, A., Kwok, S., Shi, X., Wu, S., & Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. (2012). Quantitation of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Plasma of Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Patients. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 82(3), E351-E358.

Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity
Murphy, J. D., Chisholm, K. M., Daly, M. E., Wiegner, E. A., Truong, D., & Le, Q.-T. (2011). Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY, 101(3), 356-361.

A Novel Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-3 Activator Leads to Adult Salivary Stem Cell Enrichment In Vivo
Banh, A., Xiao, N., Cao, H., Chen, C.-H., Kuo, P., & Quynh-Thu Le, Q. T. (2011). A Novel Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-3 Activator Leads to Adult Salivary Stem Cell Enrichment In Vivo. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 17(23), 7265-7272.

Tumor Galectin-1 Mediates Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Regulation of T-Cell Apoptosis
Banh, A., Zhang, J., Cao, H., Bouley, D. M., Kwok, S., & Le, Q.-T. (2011). Tumor Galectin-1 Mediates Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Regulation of T-Cell Apoptosis. CANCER RESEARCH, 71(13), 4423-4431.

Differentiated (Simplex) Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Taube, J. M., Badger, J., Kong, C. S., & Dadras, S. S. (2011). Differentiated (Simplex) Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOPATHOLOGY, 33(3), E27-E30.

MYB Expression and Translocation in Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas and Other Salivary Gland Tumors With Clinicopathologic Correlation
West, R. B., Kong, C., Clarke, N., Gilks, T., Lipsick, J. S., & Le, Q.-T. (2011). MYB Expression and Translocation in Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas and Other Salivary Gland Tumors With Clinicopathologic Correlation. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 35(1), 92-99.

A Panel of 3 Markers Including p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH is Optimal for Distinguishing Between Primary Endometrial and Endocervical Adenocarcinomas
Kong, C. S., Beck, A. H., & Longacre, T. A. (2010). A Panel of 3 Markers Including p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH is Optimal for Distinguishing Between Primary Endometrial and Endocervical Adenocarcinomas. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 34(7), 915-926.

The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways
Courter, D., Cao, H., Kwok, S., Kong, C., Banh, A., & Le, Q.-T. (2010). The RGD Domain of Human Osteopontin Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Activation of Survival Pathways. PLOS ONE, 5(3).

Validation of Lysyl Oxidase As a Prognostic Marker for Metastasis and Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90-03
Le, Q.-T., Harris, J., Magliocco, A. M., Kong, C. S., Diaz, R., & Ang, K. K. (2009). Validation of Lysyl Oxidase As a Prognostic Marker for Metastasis and Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90-03. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 27(26), 4281-4286.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS STATUS AND OTHER MOLECULAR PROGNOSTIC MARKERS IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS
Kong, C. S., Narasimhan, B., Cao, H., Kwok, S., Erickson, J. P., & Le, Q.-T. (2009). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS STATUS AND OTHER MOLECULAR PROGNOSTIC MARKERS IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 74(2), 553-561.

p16(INK4A) Immunohistochemical Staining May Be Helpful in Distinguishing Branchial Cleft Cysts From Cystic Squamous Cell Carcinomas Originating in the Oropharynx
Pai, R. K., Erickson, J., Pourmand, N., & Kong, C. S. (2009). p16(INK4A) Immunohistochemical Staining May Be Helpful in Distinguishing Branchial Cleft Cysts From Cystic Squamous Cell Carcinomas Originating in the Oropharynx. CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY, 117(2), 108-119.

Pathology Quiz Case Cholesterol granuloma (CG) of the left maxillary sinus
Parikh, S., Mattoch, I. W., Kong, C., & Hwang, P. H. (2008). Pathology Quiz Case Cholesterol granuloma (CG) of the left maxillary sinus. ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY, 134(11), 1233-1234.

Cytologic Evaluation of Lymphadenopathy Associated With Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome Role of Immunophenotypic and Molecular Ancillary Studies
Pai, R. K., Mullins, F. M., Kim, Y. H., & Kong, C. S. (2008). Cytologic Evaluation of Lymphadenopathy Associated With Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome Role of Immunophenotypic and Molecular Ancillary Studies. CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY, 114(5), 323-332.

Diagnostic problems in anal pathology
Longacre, T. A., Kong, C. S., & Welton, M. L. (2008). Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. ADVANCES IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY, 15(5), 263-278.

Expression and prognostic significance of a panel of tissue hypoxia markers in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas
Le, Q.-T., Kong, C., Lavori, P. W., O'Byrne, K., Erler, J. T., & Koong, A. C. (2007). Expression and prognostic significance of a panel of tissue hypoxia markers in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 69(1), 167-175.

Role of human papillomavirus in squamous cell metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma of the rectum
Kong, C. S., Welton, M. L., & Longacre, T. A. (2007). Role of human papillomavirus in squamous cell metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma of the rectum. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 31(6), 919-925.

Cytologic diagnosis of columnar-cell lesions of the breast
Jensen, K. C., & Kong, C. S. (2007). Cytologic diagnosis of columnar-cell lesions of the breast. DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, 35(2), 73-79.

p16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry is superior to HPV in situ hybridization for the detection of high-risk HPV in atypical squamous metaplasia
Kong, C. S., Balzer, B. L., Troxell, M. L., Patterson, B. K., & Longacre, T. A. (2007). p16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry is superior to HPV in situ hybridization for the detection of high-risk HPV in atypical squamous metaplasia. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 31(1), 33-43.

Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid mass
Kalinyak, J. E., Kong, C. S., & McDougall, I. R. (2006). Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as a rapidly growing thyroid mass. THYROID, 16(10), 1053-1057.

Lysyl oxidase is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis
Erler, J. T., Bennewith, K. L., Nicolau, M., Dornhofer, N., Kong, C., & Giaccia, A. J. (2006). Lysyl oxidase is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis. NATURE, 440(7088), 1222-1226.

An evaluation of tumor oxygenation and gene expression in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancers
Le, Q. T., Chen, E., Salim, A., Cao, H. B., Kong, C. S., & Giaccia, A. J. (2006). An evaluation of tumor oxygenation and gene expression in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancers. CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 12(5), 1507-1514.

Galectin-1: A link between tumor hypoxia and tumor immune privilege
Le, Q. T., Shi, G. Y., Cao, H. B., Nelson, D. W., Wang, Y. Y., & Koong, A. C. (2005). Galectin-1: A link between tumor hypoxia and tumor immune privilege. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 23(35), 8932-8941.

Utility of syndecan-1 (CD138) expression in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms - A tissue microarray study of 1,754 cases
Kambham, N., Kong, C., Longacre, T. A., & Natkunam, Y. (2005). Utility of syndecan-1 (CD138) expression in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms - A tissue microarray study of 1,754 cases. APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY, 13(4), 304-310.

Cytologic diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma - Role of ancillary studies
Troxell, M. L., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A. M., Natkunam, Y., & Kong, C. S. (2005). Cytologic diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma - Role of ancillary studies. CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY, 105(5), 310-318.

Pathologic correlates of false positive breast magnetic resonance imaging findings: which lesions warrant biopsy?
Langer, S. A., Horst, K. C., Ikeda, D. M., Daniel, B. L., Kong, C. S., & Dirbas, F. M. (2005). Pathologic correlates of false positive breast magnetic resonance imaging findings: which lesions warrant biopsy?. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 190(4), 633-640.

Endometrial adenocarcinoma associated with subtle lymph-vascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis: A histologic pattern mimicking intravascular and sinusoidal histiocytes
McKenney, J. K., Kong, C. S., & Longacre, T. A. (2005). Endometrial adenocarcinoma associated with subtle lymph-vascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis: A histologic pattern mimicking intravascular and sinusoidal histiocytes. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY, 24(1), 73-78.

Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins in head and neck cancer by proteomic and tissue array profiling
Chen, Y. J., Shi, G. Y., Wei, X., Kong, C., Zhao, S. C., & Koong, A. C. (2004). Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins in head and neck cancer by proteomic and tissue array profiling. CANCER RESEARCH, 64(20), 7302-7310.

Laryngeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma - A case of cervical metastases 13 years after treatment and a 25-year review of existing literature
Sivanandan, R., Kong, C. S., Kaplan, M. J., Fee, W. E., Thu-Le, Q., & Goffnet, D. R. (2004). Laryngeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma - A case of cervical metastases 13 years after treatment and a 25-year review of existing literature. ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY, 130(10), 1217-1222.

Nodular fasciitis - Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy
Kong, C. S., & Cha, I. (2004). Nodular fasciitis - Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. ACTA CYTOLOGICA, 48(4), 473-477.

Ectopic intrathyroidal thymoma: A case report and review
Cohen, J. B., Troxell, M., Kong, C. S., & McDougall, I. R. (2003). Ectopic intrathyroidal thymoma: A case report and review. THYROID, 13(3), 305-308.

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus in a postmenopausal woman - A case report and review of the literature
Coulson, L. E., Kong, C. S., & Zaloudek, C. (2000). Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus in a postmenopausal woman - A case report and review of the literature. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY, 24(11), 1558-1562.

Utility of CD34 reactivity in evaluating focal nodular hepatocellular lesions sampled by fine needle aspiration biopsy
Kong, C. S., Appenzeller, M., & Ferrell, L. D. (2000). Utility of CD34 reactivity in evaluating focal nodular hepatocellular lesions sampled by fine needle aspiration biopsy. ACTA CYTOLOGICA, 44(2), 218-222.

INDUCTION OF DONOR-SPECIFIC UNRESPONSIVENESS TO CARDIAC ALLOGRAFTS IN RATS BY PRETRANSPLANT ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY THERAPY
Shizuru, J. A., Seydel, K. B., Flavin, T. F., Wu, A. P., Kong, C. C., & Fathman, C. G. (1990). INDUCTION OF DONOR-SPECIFIC UNRESPONSIVENESS TO CARDIAC ALLOGRAFTS IN RATS BY PRETRANSPLANT ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY THERAPY. TRANSPLANTATION, 50(3), 366-373.

USE OF ANTI-L3T4 AND ANTI-IA TREATMENTS FOR PROLONGATION OF XENOGENEIC ISLET TRANSPLANTS
Kaufman, D. S., Kong, C. S., Shizuru, J. A., Gregory, A. K., & Fathman, C. G. (1988). USE OF ANTI-L3T4 AND ANTI-IA TREATMENTS FOR PROLONGATION OF XENOGENEIC ISLET TRANSPLANTS. TRANSPLANTATION, 46(2), 210-215.