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Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severe they penetrate the skin's surface.
First-degree (superficial) burns
First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example. Long-term tissue damage is rare and usually consists of an increase or decrease in the skin color.
Second-degree -(partial thickness) burns
Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
Third-degree (full thickness) burns
Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons. The burn site appears white or charred. There is no sensation in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.
Burns affecting 10 percent of a child's body and those affecting 15 to 20 percent of an adult's body are considered to be major injuries and require hospitalization and extensive rehabilitation.