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Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy involves the removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone by inserting a needle into the hipbone or breastbone. This type of biopsy is performed either from the sternum (breastbone) or the iliac crest hipbone (the bone area on either side of the pelvis on the lower back area). The skin is cleansed and a local anesthetic is given to numb the area. A long, rigid needle is inserted into the marrow, and cells are aspirated for study; this step is occasionally uncomfortable. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to look for signs of cancer. A core biopsy (removing a small bone 'chip' from the marrow) may follow the aspiration.