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Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index that can be measured with a coronary pressure wire in a patient with a moderate narrowing of unclear significance. The coronary pressure wire is a small wire with a pressure sensor near its tip that can be placed beyond the moderate narrowing. FFR is the ratio of the coronary pressure beyond the narrowing compared to the pressure before the narrowing. Measuring FFR provides more information than a standard angiogram alone about the significance of moderate coronary narrowings and its use improves patient outcomes. Stanford physicians have been world leaders in developing and validating this technique.