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Carotid-cavernous fistulae are a specific kind of dural fistula that involves the carotid artery (or its branches) and a large vein (cavernous sinus) behind the eye. These fistulae can occur because of trauma, if there is an aneursym in the carotid that breaks and causes the communication, or they can happen spontaneously without a definite reason.
Symptoms can include eye pain, swelling and redness of the eye, double vision or loss of vision if untreated. These fistula are often treated by an endovascular approach, putting a catheter in the artery or vein, and using material to block up the connection between the artery and vein. This material can include balloons, coils, and liquid glue.
CC fistula pre-treatment
Angiogram from a patient with a carotid cavernous fistula. Abnormally dilated veins are seen which are draining the fistula and causing the patient to have problems with her vision.
CC fistula post-treatment
Angiogram obtained after endovascular treatment was performed to close the fistula, which now shows normal arterial blood flow to the brain.
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