Chest X-rays before and after LVRS. Note the flattened diaphragms at the bottom of the chest and dark, “radiolucent” lungs before the operation, both of which are improved on the postoperative chest x-ray.

Intraoperative photo showing the stapling device used to remove the most abnormal, emphysematous lung tissue. Note the white “buttress” material used to prevent air leaks from the lung. 

Typical areas of lung removed during LVRS 

Incision placement for the thoracoscopic (VATS) approach to the operation