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Sometimes external beam radiation therapy is done at the time of surgery.
Intraoperative radiation therapydelivers radiation to the cancer site after your surgeon removes the tumor. Your radiation cancer doctor delivers focused radiation to the site, before the incision is closed. This treatment is given just once, in this single dose.
In many circumstances, cancers are treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy being delivered at the same time. This technique is called chemoradiation. With this treatment approach, chemotherapy is commonly a lower than usual dose, but because it is combined with radiation therapy, it amplifies the result. In certain cancers, chemoradiation is a more effective treatment option than drug therapy followed by radiation therapy.